Non-Conventional Time Domain (TD)-NMR Approaches for Food Quality: Case of Gelatin-Based Candies as a Model Food

Uguz S. S. , Özel B., Grunin L., Ozvural E. B. , Oztop M. H.

Molecules, vol.27, no.19, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/molecules27196745
  • Journal Name: Molecules
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: soft candy, gelatin, confectionery, TD-NMR, crystallinity, longitudinal relaxation time, spin diffusion, Magic Sandwich Echo, Solid Echo, second moment, SPIN-DIFFUSION NMR, GLASS-TRANSITION, RELAXATION, MOBILITY, WATER, CRYSTALLIZATION, CRYSTALLINITY, POLYMORPHISM, RELAXOMETRY, POLYMERS
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 by the authors.The TD-NMR technique mostly involves the use of T1 (spin-lattice) and T2 (spin-spin) relaxation times to explain the changes occurring in food systems. However, these relaxation times are affected by many factors and might not always be the best indicators to work with in food-related TD-NMR studies. In this study, the non-conventional TD-NMR approaches of Solid Echo (SE)/Magic Sandwich Echo (MSE) and Spin Diffusion in food systems were used for the first time. Soft confectionary gelatin gels were formulated and conventional (T1) and non-conventional (SE, MSE and Spin Diffusion) TD-NMR experiments were performed. Corn syrups with different glucose/fructose compositions were used to prepare the soft candies. Hardness, °Brix (°Bx), and water activity (aw) measurements were also conducted complementary to NMR experiments. Relaxation times changed (p < 0.05) with respect to syrup type with no obvious trend. SE/MSE experiments were performed to calculate the crystallinity of the samples. Samples prepared with fructose had the lowest crystallinity values (p < 0.05). Spin Diffusion experiments were performed by using Goldman–Shen pulse sequence and the interface thickness (d) was calculated. Interface thickness values showed a wide range of variation (p < 0.05). Results showed that non-conventional NMR approaches had high potential to be utilized in food systems for quality control purposes.