By applying voltage pulses to the sample rod while recording the spectrum, we show, for the first time, that it is possible to obtain a time-resolved XPS spectrum in the millisecond range. The Si 2p spectrum of a silicon sample containing a ca. 400-nm oxide layer displays a time-dependent charging shift of ca. 1.7 eV with respect to the Au 4f peaks of a gold metal strip in contact with the sample. When gold is deposited as C-12-thiol-capped nanoclusters onto the same sample, this time the Au 4f peaks also display time-dependent charging behavior that is slightly different from that of the Si 2p peak. This charging/discharging is related to emptying/filling of the hole traps in the oxide layer by the stray electrons within the vacuum system guided by the external voltage pulses applied to the sample rod, which can be used to extract important parameter(s) related to the dielectric properties of surface structures.