The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among pre-service teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief, math anxiety, and mathematical self-concept scores. The analysis was based on 276 elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in teacher education programs in Turkey. The Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, the Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Scale, and the Experience with Mathematics Questionnaire were used as the measuring instruments. Structural equation modeling was utilized to explore the degree to which the hypothesized model fit the data and to estimate the magnitude of the relationship among the variables. Results revealed that the hypothesized model for the learner-related variables fit the data well. The relationships among the hypothesized variables were discussed by taking into consideration the social and educational aspects of the Turkish society.