Encapsulation of Caffeic Acid in Carob Bean Flour and Whey Protein-Based Nanofibers via Electrospinning

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Zeren S., Şahin S., Şümnü S. G.

Foods, vol.11, no.13, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 13
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/foods11131860
  • Journal Name: Foods
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: active packaging, biodegradable, electrospun fiber, FABRICATION, ANTIOXIDANT, MORPHOLOGY, EXTRACT, STARCH, PH
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.The purpose of this study was to introduce caffeic acid (CA) into electrospun nanofibers made of carob flour, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The effects of WPC concentration (1% and 3%) and CA additions (1% and 10%) on the characteristics of solutions and nanofibers were investigated. The viscosity and electrical conductivity of the solutions were examined to determine characteristics of solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water vapor permeability (WVP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to characterize the nanofibers. According to the SEM results, the inclusion of CA into nanofibers resulted in thinner nanofibers. All nanofibers exhibited uniform morphology. CA was efficiently loaded into nanofibers. When CA concentrations were 1% and 10%, loading efficiencies were 76.4% and 94%, respectively. Nanofibers containing 10% CA demonstrated 92.95% antioxidant activity. The results indicate that encapsulating CA into carob flour–WPC-based nanofibers via electrospinning is a suitable method for active packaging applications.