The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of type of educational system and years spent in teacher education programs on preservice teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematical self-concept scores. The sample consisted of 234 American and 276 Turkish early childhood and elementary school preservice teachers. The Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Scale (AMAS; Hopko, 2003) was used to measure how anxious preservice teachers feel during a specific mathematics related event. In order to measure the mathematical self-concept of preservice teachers, the Experience with Mathematics Questionnaire (EMQ; Gourgey, 1982) was used. Regarding the effect of the educational system, results revealed that while the American preservice teachers had significantly higher anxiety scores, Turkish preservice teachers had significantly higher self-concept scores. Results supported previous fmdings emphasizing the negative relationship between mathematical anxiety and mathematical self-concept.