Detection of Authenticity and Quality of the Turkish Delights (Lokum) by Means of Conventional and Fast Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

Pocan P., Knapkiewicz M., Rachocki A., ÖZTOP H. M.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.69, pp.12089-12101, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 69
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00943
  • Title of Journal : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • Page Numbers: pp.12089-12101
  • Keywords: fast field cycling (FFC) NMR relaxometry, time domain (TD) NMR relaxometry, water dynamics, soft candies, food gels, NMR RELAXOMETRY, TIME, ADULTERATION, RELAXATION, DIFFUSION, DYNAMICS, GELATIN, GELS


© 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.Turkish delights (lokum) are traditional confectionery products that contain mainly sucrose as the sugar source and starch as the gelling agent. However, manufacturers sometimes might prefer to use corn syrup instead of sucrose to decrease the cost. This jeopardizes the originality of Turkish delights and leads to production of adulterated samples. In this study, Turkish delights were formulated using sucrose (original sample) and different types of corn syrups (SBF10, SCG40, and SCG60). Results clearly indicated that corn-syrup-containing samples had improved textural properties and were less prone to crystallization. However, this case affected authenticity of the products negatively. Both time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD NMR) and fast field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance (FFC NMR) techniques were found to be effective to discriminate the original samples from the corn-syrup-containing samples. In addition, quantitative analysis of FFC NMR showed that, apart from the rotational motions, molecules in Turkish delights (mainly water and also sugar molecules) undergo two types of translational dynamics.