Application of a depth sensing indentation hardness test to evaluate the mechanical properties of food materials

Ozkan N., Xin H., CHEN X.

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, vol.67, no.5, pp.1814-1820, 2002 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 67 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2002
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb08728.x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1814-1820
  • Keywords: hardness, elastic modulus, indentation, whey protein gels, potato tissue, rheology, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, GELS, CONSISTENCY, MODULUS, COMPRESSION, FATS, LOAD


A depth sensing indentation hardness test with an associated analysis is described as a convenient and simple technique for characterizing mechanical properties of food materials, such as hardness (H), elastic modulus (E), and an elasticity index (I-E) which represents the ratio of elastic to total deformation. Storage modulus (G) and loss tangent (tandelta) of the selected model food material, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) gel, have also been determined using an oscillatory dynamic testing. Fractal dimension (D) and strain rate (or frequency) exponent (n) of the WPC gels were determined using both the indentation and dynamic test results. A good correlation between the results from the indentation and the dynamic tests was established. The effects of protein concentration, deformation rate, and chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of the WPC gels were clearly illustrated using the indentation test.