An investigation on the mineralogical, petrogaphical and chemical properties of stone objects from Karain Cave, Antalya-Turkey

Tezin Türü: Yüksek Lisans

Tezin Yürütüldüğü Kurum: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, Türkiye

Tezin Onay Tarihi: 2012




The archaeological and technical questions about ancient stone tools lead to various research activities such as chemical and petrographical analysis. Considering research areas and publications it can be suggested that mineralogical studies of stone samples of ancient stone tools have disclosed useful information concerning identification of the stone. Within this context, aim of this study is to determine the chemical, mineralogical and petrographical identities of the stone samples of Karain Cave (Antalya). Most paleolithic caves show one specific time interval layer but Karain Cave shows lower-upper and middle layers which give information about the migration ways between Near East and Europe. Stone tools excavated from Karain Cave are not only first human remainings in Anatolia but also first artworks of Anatolian people.Most of the stone tools excavated from Karain Cave are cherts. These cherts were analysed for archeological aspects but mineralogical, petrographical, and chemical contents have not been analysed yet. During the excavations at the Karain Cave in Antalya many stone pieces in different sizes and colors had been found. In this study ten samples were examined. The methods used consists of thin section, X- ray powder diffraction , scanning - electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis , differential thermal analyses and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine material characteristics of the samples. Petrographically the nine of the samples are chert with some including radiolarian fossils. Microcrystalline á - quartz is the major mineral in the chert. Only one sample is composed calcite and is identified as micritic limestone. Chemical analysis reflect the typical composition of chert with the average values of; 40.9% Si and 1 sample is limestone, which is composed of 35.7% Ca . Minor elements are Fe, Al, K, and Ti in the samples. Thermal analysis is also supported the thin section studies.Further research is suggested for provenance analysis of stone tools from the Karain Cave.