Immobilization of whole viable Pseudomonas fluorescens cells was achieved on a graphite electrode modified with a thiophene-based conducting polymer. Microbial electrodes were constructed by the entrapment of bacterial cells on conducting copolymer matrix using a dialysis membrane. The biosensor was characterized using glucose as the substrate. As well as analytical characterization, effects of electropolymerization time, pH and temperature on the sensor response were examined. Finally, operational stability was also tested. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.