Pyrolysis and combustion behavior of indigenous lignite, olive residue and their 50/50 wt.% blend in air and oxy-fuel conditions were investigated by using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) combined with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Pyrolysis tests were carried out in nitrogen and carbon dioxide environments which are the main diluting gasses of air and oxy-fuel environment, respectively. Pyrolysis results of the parent fuels and the blend show that weight loss profiles are almost the same up to a temperature of 700 degrees C in these two environments, indicating that CO2 behaves as an inert gas in this temperature range. However, further weight loss takes place in CO2 atmosphere at higher temperatures due to CO2-char gasification reaction which leads to significant increase in CO and COS formation as observed in FTIR evolution profiles. Comparison between experimental and theoretical pyrolysis profiles of the blend samples reveals that there is no synergy in both atmospheres. Combustion experiments were carried out in four different atmospheres; air. oxygen-enriched air environment (30% O2-70% N-2), oxy-fuel environment (21% O-2-79% CO2) and oxygen-enriched oxy-fuel environment (30% O2-70% CO2). Replacing N-2 in the combustion environment by CO2 causes slight delay (lower maximum rate of weight loss and higher burnout temperature) in the combustion of all samples. However, this effect is found to be more significant for olive residue than lignite. Elevated oxygen levels shift combustion profiles to lower temperatures and increase the rate of weight loss. Combustion profiles of olive residue/lignite blends lie between those of individual fuels. Comparison between experimental and theoretical combustion profiles and characteristic temperatures of the blend samples indicates synergistic interactions between the parent fuels during co-combustion of olive residue and lignite. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.