\The validity of self-reported seatbelt use among low belt use populations in low belt use countries has not been evaluated directly. Nine hundred and ninety drivers were recruited from shopping centers, car parks, and other suitable locations located in Afyon and Ankara cities of Turkey in order to compare the self-reported and observed seatbelt usage rates. Data sets were collected simultaneously from the participants not being aware of having their seatbelt use observed. Participants interviewed in Afyon (n = 301) and Ankara (n = 658) reported seatbelt usage ("always using a seatbelt") rates of 39% and 45%, respectively. When observed, however, only 47% in Afyon and 70% in Ankara of these drivers actually fasten their seat-belts. It seems that the drivers in both cities exaggerated their use seat belts considerably. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.