Native extracellular matrix/fibroin hydrogels for adipose tissue engineering with enhanced vascularization

Kayabolen A., Keskin D. , Aykan A., Karslioglu Y., Zor F., Tezcaner A.

BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, cilt.12, 2017 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier


Adipose tissue engineering is a promising field for regeneration of soft tissue defects. However, vascularization is needed since nutrients and oxygen cannot reach cells in thick implants by diffusion. Obtaining a biocompatible scaffold with good mechanical properties is another problem. In this study, we aimed to develop thick and vascularized adipose tissue constructs supporting cell viability and adipose tissue regeneration. Hydrogels were prepared by mixing rat decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) and silk fibroin (Fib) at different v/v ratios (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3) and vortexing. Gelation times decreased with increasing fibroin ratio Among hydrogel groups 1:3-DAT: Fib ratio group showed similar mechanical properties with adipose tissue. Both pre-adipocytes and pre-endothelial cells, pre-differentiated from adipose derived stem cells (ASCs), were encapsulated in hydrogels at a 1:3 ratio. In vitro analyses showed that hydrogels with 1:3 (v/v) DAT: Fib ratio supported better cell viability. Pre-adipocytes had lipid vesicles, and pre-endothelial cells formed tubular structures inside hydrogels only after 3 days in vitro. When endothelial and adipogenic pre-differentiated ASCs (for 7 days before encapsulation) were encapsulated together into 1:3-DAT: Fib hydrogels both cell types continued to differentiate into the committed cell lineage. Vascularization process in the hydrogels implanted with adipogenic and endothelial pre-differentiated ASCs took place between the first and second week after implantation which was faster than observed in the empty hydrogels. ASCs pre-differentiated towards adipogenic lineage inside hydrogels had begun to accumulate lipid vesicles after 1 week of subcutaneous implantation Based on these results, we suggest that 1:3-DAT: Fib hydrogels with enhanced vascularization hold promise for adipose tissue engineering.