Vth International Eurasian Educational Research Congress (EJER Congress), Antalya, Turkey, 2 - 05 May 2018, pp.771
Problem Durumu: Collective efficacy has been an important motivational factor influencing group work (Bandura, 1997). This construct was
formulated by Bandura’s social cognitive theory (1986) which noted that interaction with other people caused the formation of
group belief regarding collective action they conducted.
Bandura (1997) also argued that there were four sources to enhance collective efficacy in the groups. The sources are
mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal experience, and psychological and affective states. For mastery
experience, previous performance in groups plays essential role in development of subsequent collective efficacy (Myers,
Felts & Short, 2004). Regarding vicarious experience, collective efficacy can be improved when groups take other groups or
other peoples who have similar goals or constraints as a model in their performances or products (Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk
Hoy, 2004). Moreover, verbal feedback of other groups or other people may persuade groups about their ability to do tasks.
This refers to effect of verbal persuasion source on collective efficacy (Sorlie & Torsheim, 2011). Final source is related to
psychological and affective states. While positive feelings in the group enhance collective efficacy, negative situations lead to
decrease collective efficacy (Bandura, 1997). Concerning this issue, Goddard et al. (2004) claimed that stress, crises and
pressure might influence negatively on improvement of collective efficacy.
Prior to formulation of collective efficacy, Bandura (1997) formulated self-efficacy construct as ‘‘beliefs in one’s capabilities to
organize and execute the courses of action required to produce to given attainments’’ (p. 3). Research demonstrated that
there was significant positive relationship between collective efficacy and self-efficacy of group members (e.g. FernandezBallesteros, Diez-Nicolas, Caprara, Barbaranelli, & Bandura, 2002; Fives & Looney, 2009; Lent, Schmidt, & Schmidt, 2006;
Lev & Koslowsky, 2009; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010).
Collective efficacy can be an important construct in group work of preservice teachers. To date, limited number of the studies
has examined collective efficacy in the context of preservice education. These studies revealed out that collective efficacy
among preservice teacher was developed, and it was a significant factor on group discussion and group performance (Wang
& Lin, 2007, Webster, Erwin, & Parks, 2013). Due to limited studies concerning preservice teachers’ collective efficacy in the
literature, there was lack of information on how collective efficacy influenced self-efficacy in the context of preservice
teachers. Therefore, in order to fill this gap in the literature, current study was conducted with preservice science teachers in
a semester-long science methods course to investigate the influence of collective efficacy on preservice science teachers’
science teaching efficacy beliefs.
This study was a case study investigating the group work which consisted of four preservice science teachers. The
participants of this study were junior students in middle science education program. This study was conducted in the context
of the science method course during a semester. In this course, new science teaching methods were provided every week.
The sources of collective efficacy were integrated into the course. For example, the participants as a group were expected to
work together to prepare common the lesson plans based on the teaching methods (mastery experience). Then, the group
presented their microteachings of these lesson plans to the class, and observe the other groups’ microteachings (vicarious
experience). Other people in the class, and the course assistants gave feedback about the group’s microteaching
performance (verbal persuasion).
The group members were interviewed three times at third, sixth and ninth weeks. The interview protocol was firstly prepared
by the researchers; then, two experts reviewed the protocol for clarity, language, and construct validity issues. After
interviews was conducted, the all conversation was transcribed, and these notes was analyzed by using qualitative research
methodology (Merriam, 2009). Some categories were found to reflect of the answer of group members. A second coder was
used to conduct another analysis independently; then, these two analysis were discussed to remove disagreements in order
to provide trustworthiness of study.
The study presents an exploration of change of science teaching efficacy beliefs through development of collective efficacy in
group work. For this purpose, a group of preservice teachers, who worked together to prepare science lesson plans, was
examined in a case study. Interview was concluded three times over a semester. Finding showed that there was the influence of sources of collective efficacy on science teaching efficacy beliefs. Mastery experience source of collective
efficacy was shown as an important reason for the changes of personal science teaching efficacy and science teaching
All group members mentioned that they believed in themselves about teaching science (their personal science teaching
efficacy), and they would be effective to make student learn science and become successful (science teaching outcome
expectancy). These two beliefs were improved continuously during the course. Regarding this development, they gave some
reasons related to the sources of collective efficacy. Mostly, they pointed out the influence of mastery experience. For
example, they mentioned that as a group they gained experience about preparing lesson plan several times, and this
situation made positive contribution to their personal belief about teaching science. Regarding science teaching outcome
expectancy, they developed their outcome expectancy that they would be useful in students’ learning science thanks to
practices about lesson plan preparation.
Anahtar Kelimeler : collective efficacy, motivation, efficacy beliefs