Although numerous studies examined how individual differences in mothers' discourse about their early attachment experiences are associated with their caregiving behaviors toward their children, research examining how self-reported romantic attachment style is associated with maternal caregiving has been very limited. To help fill this gap, we examined whether self-reported romantic attachment style is associated with maternal caregiving behaviors observed in home settings. Mother-child interactions were observed for three hours and the mothers completed measures of attachment style and child temperament. Results indicated that attachment-related avoidance, but not attachment-related anxiety, was negatively associated with global maternal sensitivity, after controlling for the child's temperament. Consistent with the propositions of attachment theory, both attachment-related avoidance and anxiety were associated with specific caregiving themes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.