Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Wind-Oil Shale Hybrid System: Case Analysis in Jordan

AL-Ghussain L., Taylan O., Fahrioglu M.

JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, vol.140, no.1, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 140 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1115/1.4038048
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: hybrid systems, oil shale, solar, wind, energy economics, energy security, PERFORMANCE
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The integration between renewable energy systems (RESs) and oil shale system ensures reliable power generation source with a competitive energy generation cost when compared to costs of conventional systems. In addition, this integration will prevent considerable amount of CO2 emissions. This study aims to determine the size of a grid-tied hybrid system in Al-Tafilah, Jordan that maximizes the yearly overall fraction of demand met with levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) equal to or lower than the local cost of electricity generation. In addition, the effect of the integration of lithium-ion batteries as shortterm energy storage systems (ESSs) will be investigated in addition to the effect of carbon social cost on the economics of the system. The maximum FH by the hybrid system in Al-Tafilah is 97.2% with ESS and 96.9% without ESS where 70.4% of the demand is met by the 12MW oil shale system; however, to achieve these fractions, enormous installed capacity of photovoltaic (PV) and wind is required where 99% of the energy production is excess and LCOE is larger than COEcon. The maximum FH with LCOE equals to COEcon can be achieved by 12 MW oil shale, 3.5 MW PV, and 6 MW wind turbines without ESS. Such size will have FH of 87.23%, capacity factor of 46.1%, RES fraction of 16.9%, net present value (NPV) of 34.8 million USD, and a payback period of 4.8 years.