30th International Symposium on Water Supply and Drainage for Buildings, Paris, France, 16 - 17 September 2004, pp.128-139
Today historic baths deserve more detailed research on the characteristics of their water
supply and heating systems in terms of efficiency, sustainability, economy and capacity.
In this paper, to discuss these characteristics, the original water supply, surface-water
discharge and heating systems of “Çukur Hamam” in Manisa (Turkey) are examined in
a limited extent. Çukur Hamam, dated to the 14th century, represents the general
characteristics of its period, whereas the water supply system providing natural pressure
by arranging various levels remains as a unique example. In this presentation, design
principles, architectural elements and their construction techniques will be discussed
with special references to water supply, surface-water discharge and heating systems.