Embryogenic tissues (ET) of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia TEN) were initiated from immature precotyledonary zygotic embryos sampled from 15 different plus trees. Seven collections were made weekly from June 10 to July 22, 2003. DCR basal medium supplemented with 13.6 mu M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2.2 mu M benzylaminopurine (BAP) was used for initiation and maintenance of ET. Overall initiation frequency of ET in the study was 11.6%, initiation rates ranging between 4.7% and 24.1% per tree. Out of 12,940 explants tested, 3.4% were converted into established cell lines (ECL) following five subcultures. Of the maturation treatments tested, 80 mu M ABA, sucrose (3%) and maltose (3% and 6%), and 3.75% PEG combined with 1% gellan gum were the most suitable combination for somatic embryo maturation.