A comprehensive overview of carbazole-EDOT based electrochromic copolymers: A new candidate for carbazole-EDOT based electrochromic copolymer

Carbas B. B., Özbakır S., Kaya Y.

Synthetic Metals, vol.293, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 293
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2023.117298
  • Journal Name: Synthetic Metals
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Carbazole, Polycarbazole, 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), Carbazole-EDOT based copolymers, Electrochromic polymers, DFT calculations, POLYCARBAZOLE THIN-FILMS, ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS, POLYMERS, POLYMERIZATION, THIOPHENE, OXIDATION, ELECTROPOLYMERIZATION, ELECTROLYTE, PERFORMANCE, DERIVATIVES
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2023 Elsevier B.V.In recent years, there has been an increase in the demand for the synthesis of carbazole-EDOT based electrochromic copolymers since this combination of structures facilitates the obtaining of a free standing film on the working electrode and improves the electrochromic properties of the polycarbazole (PC) polymer. In this study, carbazole-EDOT based copolymers with electrochromic properties in the literature were classified into three groups and the effect of changing the carbazole/EDOT order on the polymer chain on the electrochromic properties of the obtained copolymer was tried to be revealed. Moreover, as an example, a new candidate for carbazole-EDOT based electrochromic random copolymer was introduced. Carbazole and EDOT monomers were copolymerized electrochemically in nonacidic medium for a clear and basic comparison. The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical studies show that the corresponding copolymer, poly(C-co-EDOT), contains freestanding property on working electrode and shows multielectrochromic property. The copolymer gave a λmax value at about 545 nm with a band gap of 1.74 eV. As expected, EDOT monomer inserting to the polycarbazole chain improves electrochemical and optical properties of homopolymer PC. The electrochromic performance of new copolymer was also compared with its homopolymers components (polymer of carbazole (C) and EDOT) and carbazole-EDOT based electrochromic random copolymers in literature. The experiments showed that poly(C-co-EDOT) was an electroactive material with higher coloration efficiency (CE) (258 cm2/C at 900 nm) than that of PC and carbazole-EDOT based random copolymers in literature. DFT theoretical and experimental calculations were also achieved in order to find HOMO and LUMO energy levels besides band gap and compared with each other. No such a theoretical calculation related electrochromic PC polymer and that kind of random electrochromic copolymer has ever been encountered in the studies carried out so far. Since this research is a baseline study for the valuable design of carbazole-EDOT based electrochromic copolymer, it is thought to shed light on the scientists who will work on this subject in the future.