Turkey's river flood protection system is based on surveys and assessments of a central authority as well as its limited powers of intervention. The local governments, which are the closest units of public administration to flood risk areas, are under various pressures for development. However, it is crucial to integrate flood risk mitigation efforts with local planning system and involve local governments in all stages of risk management starting from estimations of risks and determination of risk areas, as the contemporary international approaches point out. This paper was based on a sample survey of four case cities; namely Bartin, Batman, Aydin and Hatay. It aims to evaluate the main factors that contribute to the risk of flooding in riverine cities in Turkey, as well as to take some lessons for improving existing system.