The ratio of production cross sections of the W and Z bosons with exactly one associated jet is presented as a function of jet transverse momentum threshold. The measurement has been designed to maximise cancellation of experimental and theoretical uncertainties, and is reported both within a particle-level kinematic range corresponding to the detector acceptance and as a total cross-section ratio. Results are obtained with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 33 pb(-1). The results are compared with perturbative leading-order, leading-log, and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions, and are found to agree within experimental and theoretical uncertainties. The ratio is measured for events with a single jet with p(T) > 30 GeV to be 8.73 +/- 0.30(stat) +/- 0.40(syst) in the electron channel, and 8.49 +/- 0.23(stat) +/- 0.33(syst) in the muon channel. (C) 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.