Localization Uncertainty in Time-Amplitude Stereophonic Reproduction


Creative Commons License

De Sena E., Cvetkovic Z., Hachabiboglu H. , Moonen M., van Waterschoot T.

IEEE-ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, vol.28, pp.1000-1015, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/taslp.2020.2975419
  • Title of Journal : IEEE-ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING
  • Page Numbers: pp.1000-1015

Abstract

This article studies the effects of inter-channel time and level differences in stereophonic reproduction on perceived localization uncertainty, which is defined as how difficult it is for a listener to tell where a sound source is located. Towards this end, a computational model of localization uncertainty is proposed first. The model calculates inter-aural time and level difference cues, and compares them to those associated to free-field point-like sources. The comparison is carried out using a particular distance functional that replicates the increased uncertainty observed experimentally with inconsistent inter-aural time and level difference cues. The model is validated by formal listening tests, achieving a Pearson correlation of 0.99. The model is then used to predict localization uncertainty for stereophonic setups and a listener in central and off-central positions. Results show that amplitude methods achieve a slightly lower localization uncertainty for a listener positioned exactly in the center of the sweet spot. As soon as the listener moves away from that position, the situation reverses, with time-amplitude methods achieving a lower localization uncertainty.