Could MicroRNAs Be Useful Tools to Improve the Diagnosis and Treatment of Rare Gynecological Cancers? A Brief Overview.


Di Fiore R., Suleiman S., Pentimalli F., O’toole S. A. , O’leary J. J. , Ward M. P. , ...More

International journal of molecular sciences, vol.22, no.8, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ijms22083822
  • Journal Name: International journal of molecular sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: rare gynecological cancers, microRNAs, miRNAs, cancer stem cells, circulating biomarkers, extracellular vesicles, microRNA-based therapy, GRANULOSA-CELL TUMORS, PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED MICRORNAS, UTERINE SARCOMAS, ALTERNATIVE POLYADENYLATION, GENE-EXPRESSION, MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION, CIRCULATING MICRORNAS, THERAPEUTIC TARGET, OVARIAN CANCERS, DOWN-REGULATION

Abstract

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Gynecological cancers pose an important public health issue, with a high incidence among women of all ages. Gynecological cancers such as malignant germ-cell tumors, sex-cord-stromal tumors, uterine sarcomas and carcinosarcomas, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, vulvar carcinoma and melanoma of the female genital tract, are defined as rare with an annual incidence of <6 per 100,000 women. Rare gynecological cancers (RGCs) are associated with poor prognosis, and given the low incidence of each entity, there is the risk of delayed diagnosis due to clinical inexperi-ence and limited therapeutic options. There has been a growing interest in the field of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs of ∼22 nucleotides in length, because of their potential to regulate diverse biological processes. miRNAs usually induce mRNA degradation and translational repression by interacting with the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of target mRNAs, as well as other regions and gene promoters, as well as activating translation or regulating transcription under certain conditions. Recent research has revealed the enormous promise of miRNAs for improving the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of all major gynecological cancers. However, to date, only a few studies have been performed on RGCs. In this review, we summarize the data currently available regarding RGCs.