Triple-Binder-Stabilized Marine Deposit Clay for Better Sustainability

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Hanafi M., Ekinci A., Aydin E.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.12, no.11, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su12114633
  • Journal Name: SUSTAINABILITY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: cement, lime, copper slag, strength, durability, microstructure, eCO(2), embodied energy, COPPER SLAG, EMBODIED ENERGY, CEMENT, PERFORMANCE, DURABILITY, STRENGTH, BEHAVIOR
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Marine clay deposits are commonly found worldwide. Considering the cost of dumping and related environmental concerns, an alternative solution involving the reuse of soils that have poor conditions is crucial. In this research, the authors examined the strength, microstructure, and wet-dry resistance of triple-binder composites of marine-deposited clays and compiled a corresponding database. In order to evaluate the wetting-drying resistance of the laboratory-produced samples, the accumulated mass loss (ALM) was calculated. The use of slag alone as a binder, at any percentage, increased the ALM up to 2%. However, the use of lime as the third binder seemed to accelerate the chemical reactions associated with the hydration of clay and cementitious material and to enhance the chemical stability, i.e., specimens that included both lime and slag experienced the same ALM as specimens treated with cement only. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the durability improvements of these clays. The proposed unconfined compressive strength-porosity and accumulated mass loss relationship yielded practical approximation for the fine- and coarse-grained soils blended with up to three binders until 60 days of curing. The laboratory-produced mixes showed reduction of embodied energy and embodied carbon dioxide (eCO(2)) emissions for the proposed models.