Salvia ballsiana (Rech. fil.) Hedge, previously known only from the type gathering, is a local endemic species from Turkey. The species was first collected from Golbasi (Malatya) by E. K. Balls in 1935, and was not collected again until 2008, when we found it in Gerger (Adiyaman). The diagnostic morphological characters of this rare endemic species are discussed, including its anatomical, palynological and nutlet micromorphological features. Morphological characteristics of leaves, calyces, corollas and types of stamens are useful for sectional and specific delimitation in Salvia. Anatomical characters such as number of ray rows in roots, distance between vascular bundles in stems, mesophyll structures in leaves, shape of mid-rib and presence/absence of sclerenchymatic tissue in petioles are of taxonomic significance. In addition, size, shape and ornamentation of pollen grains and nutlets are diagnostic.