LOCO Codes: Lexicographically-Ordered Constrained Codes

HAREEDY A., Calderbank R.

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol.66, no.6, pp.3572-3589, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tit.2019.2943244
  • Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, MathSciNet, Metadex, zbMATH, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.3572-3589
  • Keywords: Encoding, Decoding, Optical signal processing, Parity check codes, Indexing, Complexity theory, Interference, Constrained codes, lexicographic ordering, balanced codes, data storage, magnetic recording, NONBINARY LDPC CODES, MODULATION, CHANNELS
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: No


© 1963-2012 IEEE.Line codes make it possible to mitigate interference, to prevent short pulses, and to generate streams of bipolar signals with no direct-current (DC) power content through balancing. They find application in magnetic recording (MR) devices, in Flash devices, in optical recording devices, and in some computer standards. This paper introduces a new family of fixed-length, binary constrained codes, named lexicographically-ordered constrained codes (LOCO codes), for bipolar non-return-to-zero signaling. LOCO codes are capacity-achieving, the lexicographic indexing enables simple, practical encoding and decoding, and this simplicity is demonstrated through analysis of circuit complexity. LOCO codes are easy to balance, and their inherent symmetry minimizes the rate loss with respect to unbalanced codes having the same constraints. Furthermore, LOCO codes that forbid certain patterns can be used to alleviate inter-symbol interference in MR systems and inter-cell interference in Flash systems. Numerical results demonstrate a gain of up to 10% in rate achieved by LOCO codes with respect to other practical constrained codes, including run-length-limited codes, designed for the same purpose. Simulation results suggest that it is possible to achieve a channel density gain of about 20% in MR systems by using a LOCO code to encode only the parity bits, limiting the rate loss, of a low-density parity-check code before writing.