Sample preparation with solid phase microextraction and exhaustive extraction approaches: Comparison for challenging cases

Boyaci E. , Rodriguez-Lafuente A., Gorynski K., Mirnaghi F., Souza-Silva E. A. , Hein D., ...More

ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA, vol.873, pp.14-30, 2015 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 873
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.aca.2014.12.051
  • Title of Journal : ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA
  • Page Numbers: pp.14-30


In chemical analysis, sample preparation is frequently considered the bottleneck of the entire analytical method. The success of the final method strongly depends on understanding the entire process of analysis of a particular type of analyte in a sample, namely: the physicochemical properties of the analytes (solubility, volatility, polarity etc.), the environmental conditions, and the matrix components of the sample. Various sample preparation strategies have been developed based on exhaustive or non-exhaustive extraction of analytes from matrices. Undoubtedly, amongst all sample preparation approaches, liquid extraction, including liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), are the most well-known, widely used, and commonly accepted methods by many international organizations and accredited laboratories. Both methods are well documented and there are many well defined procedures, which make them, at first sight, the methods of choice. However, many challenging tasks, such as complex matrix applications, on-site and in vivo applications, and determination of matrix-bound and free concentrations of analytes, are not easily attainable with these classical approaches for sample preparation.