With the recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, the importance of rapid and direct detection of respiratory disease viruses has been well recognized. The detection of these viruses with novel technologies is vital in timely prevention and treatment strategies for epidemics and pandemics. Respiratory viruses can be detected from saliva, swab samples, nasal fluid, and blood, and collected samples can be analyzed by various techniques. Conventional methods for virus detection are based on techniques relying on cell culture, antigen-antibody interactions, and nucleic acids. However, these methods require trained personnel as well as expensive equipment. Microfluidic technologies, on the other hand, are one of the most accurate and specific methods to directly detect respiratory tract viruses. During viral infections, the production of detectable amounts of relevant antibodies takes a few days to weeks, hampering the aim of prevention. Alternatively, nucleic acid-based methods can directly detect the virus-specific RNA or DNA region, even before the immune response. There are numerous methods to detect respiratory viruses, but direct detection techniques have higher specificity and sensitivity than other techniques. This review aims to summarize the methods and technologies developed for microfluidic-based direct detection of viruses that cause respiratory infection using different detection techniques. Microfluidics enables the use of minimal sample volumes and thereby leading to a time, cost, and labor effective operation. Microfluidic-based detection technologies provide affordable, portable, rapid, and sensitive analysis of intact virus or virus genetic material, which is very important in pandemic and epidemic events to control outbreaks with an effective diagnosis.