Resilience and sustainable supply chain network design by considering renewable energy

Lotfi R., Kargar B., Hoseini S. H., Nazari S., Safavi S., Weber G.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH, vol.45, no.12, pp.17749-17766, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 45 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/er.6943
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.17749-17766
  • Keywords: renewable energy, resilience, robust optimization, supply chain network design, sustainability, ELECTRICITY
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: No


Nowadays, using renewable energy (RE) is faster growing by each country. The managerial and designer of supply chain network design (SCND) have to plan to apply RE in pillars of supply chain (SC). This research indicates resilience and sustainable SCND by considering RE (RSSCNDRE) for the first time. A two-stage new robust stochastic optimization is embedded for RSSCNDRE. The first stage locates facility location and RE and the second stage defines flow quantity between SC components. We solve the model by GAMS-CPLEX solver to locate components of SC and RE. Effects of changing conservative coefficient and demand are investigated and by increasing 20% for conservative coefficient, the cost function increase by 0.5%. Also, when demand is high, activating RE is economically feasible and we cannot buy and supply energy by the government power network and have to supply energy by RE. After activating RE, by increasing 20% for demand, the cost function increases by 6%. We contribute fix-and-optimize strategy to define the upper bound for a large-scale problem. The proposed upper bound for the main model is less than 10% and appropriate for estimating the cost of large-scale problems. This research suggested to equip SC by RE that SC becomes resilient against demand fluctuation and sustainable energy resource compatible with sustainable development goal (SGD7).