Early detection of an inter-turn short circuit fault (ISCF) can reduce repair costs and downtime of an electrical machine. In an induction machine (IM) driven by an inverter with a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm, the controller outputs are influenced by a fault due to the fault-controller interaction. Based on this observation, this study developed neural network models using inverter switching statistics to detect the ISCF of an IM. The method was non-invasive, and it did not require any additional sensors. In the fault detection task, an area under receiver operating characteristics curve value of 0.9950 (95% Confidence IntervaI: 0.9949 - 0.9951) was obtained. At the rated operating conditions, the neural network model detected and located an ISCF of 2-turns (out of 104 turns per phase) under 0.1 seconds, a speedup of more than two times compared to the thresholding-based method. Moreover, we published the switching vector data collected at various load torque and shaft speed values for healthy and faulty states of the IM, becoming the first publicly available ISCF detection dataset. Together with the dataset, we provided performance baselines for three main neural network architectures, namely, multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and recurrent neural network.