Blockchains are tamper-evident and tamper-resistant digital ledgers. Due to their distributed and shared nature, and their cryptographic functions, blockchains are resilient to alterations. They provide a trustworthy environment for the data stored in the ledgers. However, each new technology brings its own challenges along with the opportunities. Our minds are still busy with the question of “how could blockchain technology potentially benefit us?” In this paper, we approach to this question from the health domain perspective. Based on a systematic literature review, we discuss to what extent blockchain could provide solutions for the challenges inherited in the health domain and if blockchain technology introduces new challenges for development of health applications. The review included 27 publications which share experiences of practitioners from 2016 to 2020.