In this study, bismuth doped 45S5 nanobioactive bioglass (nBG) and graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were developed and characterized in terms of microstructural, mechanical, bioactivity and biological properties. Bismuth (Bi) - doped nBG was synthesized by sol-gel method and sintered at 600 degrees C for 2 h. Nanosized GO was homogeneously mixed with Bi doped bioglass at various ratios to prepare nanocomposites. Addition of Bi increased the density of nBG samples while a considerable decrease in density was observed for nanocomposites with GO incorporation. Bi improved the diametral tensile strength of nBG and addition of 2.5% GO to the composite also increased the diametral tensile strength of the nanocomposites. However, addition of more than 2.5% GO had negative effect on the diametral tensile strength of the composites. Bi doping to bioglass and its composite with GO increased the biocompatibility of 45S5 nBG in which 96.5BG1Bi2.5GO (containing 96.5% BG 1% Bi 2.5% GO in weight ratio) showed highest cell viability. Overall, it can be concluded that composites of Bi doped 45S5 nBG with GO hold promise as biomaterial for biomedical applications.