Nanoscale active tuning of the second harmonic generation efficiency in semiconductors from super-low to gigantic values

Asirim O. E., KUZUOĞLU M.

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, vol.24, no.8, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1088/1367-2630/ac8950
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Compendex, INSPEC, zbMATH, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: nanoscale, second harmonic generation, semiconductor, SHG, enhancement, lasers, HHG, ENHANCEMENT
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Second harmonic generation efficiency (SHGE) strongly depends on the length of the interaction material along the beam propagation axis. Since a nanoscale interaction length is considered too short even in the optical wavelength scale, the attained SHGE through nanomaterials is usually too low to be of practical use. In this study, it will be shown that by properly adjusting the conduction-band electron density in a semiconductor nanomaterial under a certain optical pumping rate (active tuning), the SHGE can be effectively tuned from being super-low to being ultra-high. Such sharp tunability is only valid for small-scale materials as their density of conduction-band electrons can be rapidly switched between high and low under moderate optical pumping. Using an experimentally verified computational model, we have observed that at a given frequency, for a certain range of conduction-band electron densities, the SHGE can reach up to 1080% for Ga-As and 230% for silicon nanomaterials under active tuning, with respect to the intensity of the first harmonic of the input signal. Such SHGEs are unprecedented, which is very promising for generating higher harmonics via cascaded second harmonic generation performed via adaptive tuning of the conduction band electron density at each stage.