Salmonella represents an important zoonotic pathogen worldwide, but the transmission dynamics between humans and animals as well as within animal populations are incompletely understood. We characterized Salmonella isolates from cattle and humans in two geographic regions of the United States, the Pacific Northwest and the Northeast, using three common subtyping methods (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE], multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis [MLVA], and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]). In addition, we analyzed the distribution of antimicrobial resistance among human and cattle Salmonella isolates from the two study areas and characterized Salmonella persistence on individual dairy farms. For both Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Newport and Typhimurium, we found multidrug resistance to be significantly associated with bovine origin of isolates, with the odds of multidrug resistance for Newport isolates from cattle approximately 18 times higher than for Newport isolates from humans. Isolates from the Northwest were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant than those from the Northeast, and susceptible and resistant isolates appeared to represent distinct Salmonella subtypes. We detected evidence for strain diversification during Salmonella persistence on farms, which included changes in antimicrobial resistance as well as genetic changes manifested in PFGE and MLVA pattern shifts. While discriminatory power was serotype dependent, the combination of PFGE data with either MLVA or resistance typing data consistently allowed for improved subtype discrimination. Our results are consistent with the idea that cattle are an important reservoir of multidrug-resistant Salmonella infections in humans. In addition, the study provides evidence for the value of including antimicrobial resistance data in epidemiological investigations and highlights the benefits and potential problems of combining subtyping methods.