A total of 31 strains of facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from different Turkish dry sausage (soudjouk) samples. They were determined as belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and subjected to a taxonomic study. The strains were divided into seven groups based on sugar fermentation pattern and other physiological and morphological characteristics. A variety of biochemical and genetic characteristics were also examined for species differentation of these isolates. They were identified as Lactobacillus sake, L. curvatus, L. alimentarius, L. plantarum, and L. brevis. Strains of L. sake were distinguished from L. curvatus by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. Atypical Lactobacillus strains and coccus-shaped organisms responsible Sor fermentation processes were not found in the samples rested. Every soudjouk sample showed differences in the most predominant Lactobacillus species.