The authors examined the nature of the relationships between job-specific personality dimensions and psychological well-being for noncommissioned officers (NCOs) in the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF). A job-specific personality inventory, comprising measures of 11 personality dimensions was developed for selection purposes. The inventory was administered to a representative sample of 1,428 NCOs along with a general mental health inventory developed by the authors, which consisted of 6 dimensions of psychological well-being. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested existence of a single factor underlying the 6 psychological well-being dimensions, Mental Health, and 2 latent factors underlying the 11 personality dimensions, Military Demeanor and Military Efficacy. The 2 personality constructs explained 91% of the variance in the Mental Health construct. A stepwise regression indicated that beta weights of the personality measures were significant except for military bearing, orderliness, and dependability. Results suggest that job-specific personality attributes were predictive of mental health. Implications of the findings for the selection of NCOs are discussed.