There are limited number of studies regarding the influence of diabetes on the regulation of cytochrome P450s and associated drug metabolizing enzyme activities especially in extrahepatic tissues such as kidney. However, there is almost no such study in lung. Alloxan-induced diabetes did not change CYP2B4 expression as measured with immunoblot analysis and associated enzyme, benzphetamine N-demethylase, activity in rabbit kidney and lung. Induction of cytochrome P4502E1 by diabetes was identified by immunochemical detection on Western blots in the lung and kidney microsomes of rabbits. In parallel to CYP2EI induction, aniline 4-hydroxylase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activities were markedly increased in diabetic rabbit lung and kidney. CYP2B4 and CYP2E1 dependent drug metabolism did not show any tissue variation in diabetic rabbit. These findings are in contrast to those of rats, mice and hamster. The results of the present work, in combination with those of the previous work [Arinc, E., Arslan, S., Adali, O., 2005. Differential effects of diabetes on CYP2E1 and CYP2B4 proteins and associated drug metabolizing enzyme activities in rabbit liver. Arch. Toxicol. 79, 427433], indicate the existence of species-dependent response of GYP-dependent drug metabolizing enzymes to diabetes. A procarcinogen and food contaminant, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), is converted to its carcinogenic form after it is activated with NDMA N-demethylase. In the current study, a statistically significant increase of liver, kidney and lung NDMA N-demethylase activity associated with CYP2E1 was shown in diabetic rabbit. Thus, it is expected that, the risk of nitrosamine induced carcinogenesis will be greater in liver, kidney and lung of the diabetic subjects. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.