Exploring the crystallinity of different powder sugars through solid echo and magic sandwich echo sequences

Grunin L., Oztop M. H., Güner S., Baltaci S. F.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN CHEMISTRY, vol.57, pp.607-615, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 57
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/mrc.4866
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.607-615
  • Keywords: crystal, amorphous fractions, magic sandwich echo, powder food, solid echo, sugar, NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE, NMR, DYNAMICS, CRYSTALLIZATION, POLYETHYLENE, POLYMORPHISM, TEMPERATURE, MOBILITY
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are frequently used in polymer, pharmaceutical, and food industries as they offer rapid experimentation and generally do not require any considerable preliminary sample preparation. Detection of solid and liquid fractions in a sample is possible with the free induction decay (FID). However, for the classical FID sequence that consists of a single pulse followed by relaxation decay acquisition, the dead time of the probe (ring out of resonance circuitry) occurs and varies between 5 and 15 mu s for standard 10-mm tubes. In such a case, there arises a risk that the signal from the solid fraction cannot be detected correctly. To obtain quantitative measurement on crystalline and more mobile amorphous fractions, alternative sequences to the classical FID in the solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance were developed. Solid echo and magic sandwich echo sequences perform the relaxation decay refocusing somehow excluding the dead time problem and allow detection of the signal from the solid fraction. In this study, knowledge of amorphous/crystal fraction, which is obtained through solid echo and magic sandwich echo, has been explored on powder sugar samples for the purpose of developing a groundwork for a reliable quality control method. Different sugars were examined for the utilization of the sequences. What is important to add and make this study unique is that the method proposed did not involve multiparameter fitting of the "bead" pattern FID signal that normally suffers from ambiguity; just the integration of the fast Fourier transform of the solid echo was needed to calculate the second moment, (M-2).