This essay focuses on the state-formation theory through the lens of the Turkish state-formation experience. The movements of resistance against state-formation in Turkey such as the internal struggles based on ideological and cultural factors, social banditry, military desertion, ethnic and religiously inspired uprisings, and non-Muslim and non-Turkish opposition are analyzed in the context of a model which has been developed in this study. According to this model state-formation is linked to a wide range of practices of social resistance. To provide the means of exploring the mechanisms of the processes of state-formation that are unintended and unplanned responses provoked by various types of resistance, their impact, not directly on institutional state-formation, but rather on the cultural and ideological dimensions of the same processes has to be carved out. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.