Wet processing textile industry has many different processing stages (dyeing, sizing, de-sizing, scouring, softening, etc.). Many chemicals currently used in the wet processing textile industry affect the amount and the type of waste produced and their influence on the aquatic life of the receiving stream. One of the critical steps in pollution prevention studies is auditing the use of chemicals and making the necessary chemical substitutions. This chemical substitution study was conducted on one of the major textile factories in Turkey with a capacity of 20,000 tons of denim fabric per year. During this study, chemical consumption level, receipts applied, environmentally problematic and alternative chemicals were examined. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques (BAT) for the Textiles Industry was accepted as main reference document and also related case studies were examined. According to the study, over 70% reduction in sulphide, which is very toxic to aquatic life, was achieved by replacing sulphur dyestuff with low sulphide content. By replacing an alternative complexing agent, the mill not only prevented the 3100 kg/month COD load to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), but also obtained more biodegradable wastewater generated during production. On the other hand, some of the chemical substitution options were on progress or dropped. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.