A Combinatorial Methodology for Optimizing Non-Binary Graph-Based Codes: Theoretical Analysis and Applications in Data Storage

HAREEDY A., Lanka C., Guo N., Dolecek L.

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol.65, no.4, pp.2128-2154, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 65 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tit.2018.2870437
  • Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2128-2154
  • Keywords: Graph-based codes, non-binary codes, LDPC codes, spatially-coupled codes, error floor, absorbing sets, weight consistency matrices, Flash memory, asymmetric channels, magnetic recording, PARITY-CHECK CODES, LDPC CODES, TRAPPING SETS, ABSORBING SETS, FLASH MEMORY, CONSTRUCTION, ALGORITHM, CAPACITY, OPTIMIZATION, PERFORMANCE
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: No


© 2018 IEEE.Non-binary (NB) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are graph-based codes that are increasingly being considered as a powerful error correction tool for modern dense storage devices. Optimizing NB-LDPC codes to overcome their error floor is one of the main code design challenges facing storage engineers upon deploying such codes in practice. Furthermore, the increasing levels of asymmetry incorporated by the channels underlying modern dense storage systems, e.g., multi-level Flash systems, exacerbate the error floor problem by widening the spectrum of problematic objects that contribute to the error floor of an NB-LDPC code. In a recent research, the weight consistency matrix (WCM) framework was introduced as an effective combinatorial NB-LDPC code optimization methodology that is suitable for modern Flash memory and magnetic recording (MR) systems. The WCM framework was used to optimize codes for asymmetric Flash channels, MR channels that have intrinsic memory, in addition to canonical symmetric additive white Gaussian noise channels. In this paper, we provide an in-depth theoretical analysis needed to understand and properly apply the WCM framework. We focus on general absorbing sets of type two (GASTs) as the detrimental objects of interest. In particular, we introduce a novel tree representation of a GAST called the unlabeled GAST tree, using which we prove that the WCM framework is optimal in the sense that it operates on the minimum number of matrices, which are the WCMs, to remove a GAST. Then, we enumerate WCMs and demonstrate the significance of the savings achieved by the WCM framework in the number of matrices processed to remove a GAST. Moreover, we provide a linear-algebraic analysis of the null spaces of WCMs associated with a GAST. We derive the minimum number of edge weight changes needed to remove a GAST via its WCMs, along with how to choose these changes. In addition, we propose a new set of problematic objects, namely oscillating sets of type two (OSTs), which contribute to the error floor of NB-LDPC codes with even column weights on asymmetric channels, and we show how to customize the WCM framework to remove OSTs. We also extend the domain of the WCM framework applications by demonstrating its benefits in optimizing column weight 5 codes, codes used over Flash channels with additional soft information, and spatially coupled codes. The performance gains achieved via the WCM framework range between 1 and nearly 2.5 orders of magnitude in the error floor region over interesting channels.