The mechanism underlying the weight gain due to treatment with olanzapine and other second generation antipsychotics has not been fully understood. To examine olanzapine's weight gain effects, we accepted first attack psychotic patients with no medication (pre-treatment) (n = 22) and the healthy control group (n = 26) in this study. After patient diagnosis, they were hospitalized and then treated for four weeks with olanzapine (post-treatment). We used case-control association design to test body mass index (BMI) and biochemical changes in each group. We also investigated peripheral leptin and neuropeptides/hormones namely, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphetaime regulated transcript (CART), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels. These neuropeptides which are synthesized/secreted from arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus affect food intake and therefore, body weight. After 4 weeks of olanzapine treatment; BMI (body mass index), waist circumference, blood triglyceride, total cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels were increased significantly in patients compared to their pre-treatment baseline. In pre-treatment, patients' NPY levels were significantly lower while alpha-MSH, the anorexigenic product of POMC levels were significantly higher vs. control. Both leptin and NPY levels were significantly increased in patients after the treatment but the NPY levels were also significantly lower in post-treatment vs. the control group. The CART levels did not change after the treatment. We may presume that the antagonist effect of olanzapine on the serotonin (5HT2CR and 5HT1BR) receptors of the arcuate hypothalamic neurons may be a basis for a deregulation of the neurohormones secretion. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.