International developments in doctoral education: The case of Türkiye


Innovations in Education and Teaching International, vol.60, no.5, pp.748-758, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/14703297.2023.2237956
  • Journal Name: Innovations in Education and Teaching International
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), INSPEC, Psycinfo, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.748-758
  • Keywords: doctoral education, Higher education, raising academicians
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Doctoral education has been of significance in Türkiye particularly in the last 20 years due to the major expansion of higher education in the country. Between 2002 and 2022, the number of universities in the country almost tripled to reach 207, exacerbating the shortage in the number of academicians and researchers. This, along with the pressure to enhance universities’ performance in international rankings, has made the improvement of doctoral education a priority. Additionally, there have been political, economic and cultural changes in the country in recent years, and these as well as the influences of globalisation, massification, diversification, capitalism and neoliberalism have led to significant policy changes in higher education. In this article, an overview is provided of the developments in doctoral education in Türkiye in response to these changes, focusing on policies related to producing qualified academicians, enabling the diversification of universities through mission differentiation, and facilitating university–industry partnership approaches.