Carburizing is widely used to improve wear resistance and fatigue life of high duty machine parts. Fatigue performance of the carburized components is greatly dependent on the residual stress state in the surface layer. The aim of this paper is to measure the depth profiles of residual stresses in the carburized steels by electronic speckle laser interferometry (ESPI) assisted hole-drilling, and to compare the results with those measured by X-ray diffraction technique. To comprehend the differences in the residual stress state, the low-C steel components were carburized, and then, tempered in the range of 180-600. degrees C. Microstructural investigations and hardness measurements were also conducted. The results obtained from both techniques gave identical results, and showed that the beneficial compressive residual stresses exist at the surface after carburizing, and their magnitudes decrease with increasing tempering temperature. It was concluded that ESPI assisted hole-drilling, with optimized drilling and stress calculation parameters, is suitable for determining the residual stress state of the carburized and tempered steels.