This study aims to present a synthesis of empirical studies conducted in Turkey on pre- and in-service math teachers' knowledge and to recapitulate the existing conceptualization in this particular line of research in the local context. Considering the interwoven and sophisticated nature of teachers' knowledge (Seidel & Shavelson, 2007), it sets out to enhance the understanding on what constitutes and should constitute these math teachers' knowledge by discovering the frequently studied research strands in the literature. To this end, this paper reviews 25 empirical research studies identified through Academic Search Complete, Education Source, ERIC, Humanities International Complete, ULAKBIM, and Google Scholar databases. Thematic analysis revealed two majorly studied strands in the field: (a) studies that identify teachers' knowledge levels in terms of certain mathematical concepts, and (b) studies that try to develop math teachers' knowledge through workshops, courses, and programs particularly designed to reach specific objectives. In addition, majority of research was seen to be carried out with pre-service teachers (N = 21); and qualitative methodology was the most commonly consulted research design (N = 22). With its findings, this study bears the potential to direct future research and contribute to pre-service mathematics teacher education programs and in-service trainings.