Advanced approach for oxygen transport and crystallization front calculation in Cz silicon crystal growth


Borisov D., Artemyev V., Kalaev V., Smirnov A., Kuliev A., Zobel F., ...More

Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.583, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 583
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2021.126493
  • Title of Journal : Journal of Crystal Growth
  • Keywords: A1. GGDH, A1. LES, A1. Oxygen concentration, A1. RANS, A1. Reynolds stress tensor, A2. Czochralski silicon crystal growth process optimization

Abstract

© 2021 Elsevier B.V.Modeling of oxygen transport during Czochralski (Cz) silicon crystal growth still is a big challenge due to oxygen evacuation from the melt free surface, affected by strong anisotropy of turbulent mass transport. To predict the crystal oxygen concentration and crystallization front geometry with reasonable accuracy usually a 3D unsteady LES or DNS approach is required which demands significant computation resources and time. We present a new steady turbulence model using the extended hypothesis for modeling the Reynolds stress tensor, which accounts for different mechanisms of Reynolds stresses anisotropy and can be used in fast 2D engineering calculations. Several 8″ silicon crystals were grown in EKZ 3500 furnace with varying operating parameters. Wafers have been cut from different parts of the crystals and analyzed using the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for oxygen concentration in facilities of Fraunhofer CSP and iTechSolar. The comparison between experimental and calculated results, which include oxygen concentration and interface deflection, is discussed in details. Time-averaged Reynolds stress tensor components as well as the turbulent heat fluxes components are compared between unsteady LES and steady RANS approaches.