A path model for technology integration into elementary school settings in Turkey

Karaca F., CAN G., Yildirim S.

COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, vol.68, pp.353-365, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 68
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.05.017
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.353-365
  • Keywords: Media in education, Elementary education, Improving classroom teaching, Cooperative/collaborative learning, Country-specific developments, INSTRUCTIONAL-TECHNOLOGY, TEACHERS, ICT, BELIEFS, CULTURE, INFORMATION, PERCEPTIONS, KNOWLEDGE, BARRIERS, IMPACT
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A three phase Sequential Mixed Method Design was utilized to propose and test a research-based model explaining the relationships between technology integration in Elementary Schools and a defined set of teacher and school-related factors. In the first phase, interviews were conducted with 20 elementary school teachers to identify critical factors influencing their technology use. The qualitative findings guided the development of a survey instrument in the second phase. In the final phase, the survey was administered to 1030 classroom teachers in eight districts of Ankara, Turkey. The direct and indirect effects of these factors on technology integration were explored. Factors included years of teaching experience, years of computer use, principal support, colleague support, technology competency, attitudes and beliefs toward using technology, and lack of time. The model showed technology integration as a complex process involving many interrelated factors, with particular importance placed on competency, support, experience, and attitudes. This comprehensive model of technology integration in elementary schools will be especially useful for practitioners and researchers in developing countries as they face the challenge of adapting instructional technologies in their frequently evolving curriculums and education systems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.