A search for the weak production of charginos and neutralinos decaying to a final state with three leptons (electrons or muons) and missing transverse momentum is presented. The analysis uses 2.06 fb(-1) of root s = 7 TeV proton-proton collision data delivered by the Large Hadron Collider and recorded with the ATLAS detector. Observations are consistent with standard model expectations in two signal regions that are either depleted or enriched in Z-boson decays. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set in R-parity conserving phenomenological minimal supersymmetric and simplified models. For the simplified models, degenerate lightest chargino and next-to-lightest neutralino masses up to 300 GeV are excluded for mass differences from the lightest neutralino up to 300 GeV.