Diagenetic and very low-grade metamorphic characteristics of the Paleozoic series of the Istanbul Terrane (NW Turkey)


SWISS JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCES, vol.105, no.2, pp.183-201, 2012 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 105 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00015-012-0108-2
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.183-201
  • Keywords: Very low-grade metamorphism, Paleozoic, Istanbul Terrane, Phyllosilicates, Illite kubler index, K-white micas b cell dimensions, Polytype, TECTONOTHERMAL EVENT, ZONGULDAK TERRANE, EVOLUTION, ROCKS, CHLORITE, PONTIDES, SMECTITE, EXAMPLE, ORIGIN, ILLITE


The Istanbul Terrane along the Black Sea coast in NW Anatolia, is a Gondwana-derived continental microplate, comprising a well-developed Paleozoic succession. Petrographic and X-ray diffraction studies were performed on rock samples from measured sections throughout Ordovician-Carboniferous sedimentary units. Diagenetic-very low-grade metamorphic clastic (shale/mudstone, siltstone, sandstone) and calcareous rocks (limestone, dolomite) mainly contain phyllosilicates, quartz, feldspar, calcite, dolomite, hematite and goethite minerals. Phyllosilicates are primarily represented by illite, chlorite, mixed-layered chlorite-vermiculite (C-V), chlorite-smectite (C-S) and illite-chlorite (I-C). Feldspar is commonly present in the Ordovician and Carboniferous units, whereas calcite and dolomite are abundant in the Silurian and Devonian sediments. The most important phyllosilicate assemblage is illite + chlorite + I-C + C-V + C-S. Illite and chlorite-bearing mixed layer clays are found in all units. The amounts of illites increase in the upper parts of the Silurian series and the lower parts of the Devonian series, whereas chlorite and chlorite-bearing mixed-layers are dominant in the Ordovician and Carboniferous units. Kubler index values of illites reflect high-grade anchimetamorphism for the Early Ordovician rocks, low-grade metamorphism to high-grade diagenesis for the Middle Ordovician-Early Silurian rocks and high-grade diagenesis for the Late Silurian-Devonian units. The K-white micas b cell dimensions indicate intermediate pressure conditions in the Early Ordovician-Early Silurian units, but lower pressure conditions in the Middle Silurian-Devonian units. Illites are composed of 2M(1) +/- 1M(d) polytypes in all units, except for Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian units which involve 1M polytype in addition to 2M(1) and 1M(d) polytypes. The 2M(1)/(2M(1) + 1M(d)) ratios rise from Devonian to Ordovician together with the increasing diagenetic-metamorphic grade. Chlorites have IIb polytype. In general, crystal-chemical data of clay minerals in the Istanbul Terrane show a gradual increase in the diagenetic/metamorphic grade together with increasing depth. The new data presented in this work indicate that the diagenetic/metamorphic grade of the Paleozoic of the Istanbul Terrane is higher than that of the neighboring Zonguldak Terrane and generated by a single metamorphic phase developed at the end of Carboniferous. This finding contrasts with the metamorphic history of the neighboring Zonguldak Terrane that displays a distinct Early Devonian unconformity and a thermal event.