A Comparison of Velocity Skin Effect Modeling With 2-D Transient and 3-D Quasi-Transient Finite Element Methods

Tosun N., Ceylan D., POLAT H., KEYSAN O.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, vol.49, no.4, pp.1500-1507, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 49 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tps.2021.3067105
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1500-1507
  • Keywords: Finite element analysis, Rails, Transient analysis, Solid modeling, Current distribution, Atmospheric modeling, Computational modeling, Electromagnetic launchers (EMLs), finite element method (FEM), transient analysis, velocity skin effect (VSE), INDUCTANCE, RAILS
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The analysis of the velocity skin effect (VSE) in electromagnetic launchers (EMLs) requires a 3-D transient finite element method, unlike magnetic skin and proximity effects. However, VSE is dominant at high speeds, and this creates convergence problems when moving or deformed mesh physics is used in a transient FEM in the 3-D analysis. Commercial finite element software cannot solve the electromagnetic aspects of such a high-speed application with a transient solver in 3-D. Although 2-D approximations can be used, such an approximation overestimates VSE resistance due to geometry simplifications. In this study, we proposed a novel quasi-transient 3-D FEM model where the air-armature region's conductivity is varied to emulate the high-speed motion of the armature. Results showed that the 2-D approximation overestimates the VSE resistance by almost 40%. The proposed VSE model has been included in the EML model, and simulation results are compared for experimental results with different EMLs, EMFY-1, and EMFY-2 and showed good agreement.