According to the cognitive model, an inflated sense of responsibility is an important cognitive mediator both in the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Empirical findings assign differential roles to responsibility in different kinds of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. However, findings that suggested a different function for responsibility revealed the need for an operational definition of responsibility and its multi-factorial factorial structure. Few studies have examined the role of responsibility in OC symptoms in adolescents. The present study therefore aimed to explore responsibility concerns and to evaluate the relationship between responsibility dimensions and obsessive-compulsive symptom subgroups in two samples of adolescents and university students in a developing non-Western country. The findings suggested that the Responsibility Attitude Scale had a bifactorial structure, responsibility in prevention and self-dangerousness and prvention. Adolescents reported more responsibility in prevention and self-dangerousness than university students. The results appear to contribute to the symptom differentiation of OC bahaviour by highlighting the importance of both dimensions of responsibility for checking symptoms, responsibility based on danger prevention for cleaning and, finally, responsibility based on self-dangerousness for obsessive thinking. Replication with clinical samples and different methodologies are encouraged.